The summit or highlight of anything; the tip; for example, in mining law, “point of a vein”. See Larkin v. Upton, 144 U. S. 19, 12 Sup. Ct 614, 36 L. ed. 330; Stevens v. Williams, 23 Fed. Cas. 40; Dug-gan vs. Davey, 4 Dak.
110, 26 N. W. 887. The summit or highlight of anything; the tip; E. P., in mining law “top of a vein”. See Larkin v. Upton, 144 U. S. 19, 12 Sup.
Ct. 614, 36 L. ed. 330; Stevens v. Williams, 23 Fed. Cas. 40; Dug gan vs. Davey, 4 Dak. 110, 26 N. W.
887. Apex juris. The pinnacle of the law; legal subtlety; a pleasant or cunning legal matter; tight technique; a rule of law that is taken to the extreme, either by rigor or by refinement. Apex rule. In mining law. U.S. mineral laws give the locator of a public-domain mining concession the entirety of any vein whose tip is within its outer surface boundaries or in vertical planes drawn indefinitely on those boundaries; and it can follow a vein that thus reaches its apogee within its limits, during its descent, although it can deviate in its course so far from the vertical that it extends outside the vertical lateral lines of the BIS position. but it must not go beyond its end lines or vertical planes that are pulled down from there. This is called the Apex rule. Pastor of St.
U.S. A Surface Use Agreement (AAA) is a contract between a landowner and a mining rights holder that dictates how mining rights are to be developed.  That is, if the mineral rights are obtained from a company that does not own the property above the location of the minerals, the company has the right to extract those minerals independently. However, companies often engage in voluntary negotiations with the surface rights holder to ensure that all operations run smoothly. In such cases, the Company will offer an SUA where owners can claim financial compensation or other concessions related to how the minerals are mined. See example.  An oil and gas lease is a contract because it contains consideration, consent, legal tangible property and jurisdiction. Many other positions can be negotiated until the contract is concluded.
The rights of all parties are set out in agreements; And when mineral production begins, the division order indicates how much revenue goes to each party involved.   In order to bring oil and gas reserves to market, minerals are transported to oil companies for a certain period of time through a legally binding contract called a lease. This agreement between individual mine owners and oil companies began before 1900 and continues to thrive today. Before exploration can begin, the mine owner (lessor) and the oil company (lessee) must agree on certain terms and conditions regarding the rights, privileges and obligations of the respective parties during the exploration and potential production phases. Minerals can be separated or separated from surface properties. There are two main ways to separate mining rights: the concession area can be sold and the minerals can be retained, or the minerals can be sold and the concession area can be retained, although the first is more common.  When mining rights have been separated from surface rights (or property rights), it is referred to as “shared property”. In a split estate, the owner of the mineral rights has the right to develop these minerals, regardless of who owns the surface rights. This is because in U.S. law, mining rights take precedence over surface rights.  The American historical precedent of this separation is rooted in Western expansion and the Land Ordinance Act of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance Act of 1789 at the expense of dispossessed natives.
 The severability clause was further strengthened by the Homestead Act of 1862 (OHA) and the Railroad Act of 1862.  Agricultural patents and the California Gold Rush of 1848 began to place mineral-rich land in private hands and favored the precedent of mineral rights that prevailed over surface rights.  This was a crucial step in the development of an economic system largely based on private incentives and market transactions.  A first case involving a property dispute between a father and son over the ownership of coal seams in Pennsylvania is cited; “Whoever has the exclusive right to mine coal on land shall have the right to own, including vis-à-vis the owner of the land, to the extent necessary to continue mining.” (Turner v. Reynolds, 1854). A subsequent case in Texas in 1862 set a precedent by stating, “It is a well-established doctrine since the early days of the common law that the right to the minerals so reserved implies the right to enter, dig, and take away.” (Cowan v. Hardeman, 1862). Some may argue that allowing this precedent through the U.S. judicial system is further exacerbated by industry lobbying, which allows the status quo to favor oil and gas development over other innovations.  Powered by Black`s Law Dictionary, Free 2nd ed., and The Law Dictionary. A division order is not a contract. This is a provision derived from the lease and other agreements on what the operator of a well or a buyer of oil and/or gas pays to the mine owner and others in the form of income.
The purpose of the divisional mandate is to show how mining revenues are distributed between the oil company, mining rights holders (licensees) and parent licence owners. The Orders Division requires a signature, a current address and a social security number for individual licensees or a tax identification number for businesses. Uniform land, sometimes referred to as “simple law” or “unified tenure,” means that surface and mineral rights are not separated.  Mining rights are property rights to exploit an area for the minerals it contains. Mining rights can be separated from land ownership (see The Split Estate). Mining rights can refer to sitting minerals that do not move below the earth`s surface, or liquid minerals such as oil or natural gas.  There are three main types of mining concession areas; Unified succession, separate or fractional succession and partial ownership of minerals.  The decimal number of revenues used to calculate the amount of a landlord`s royalty cheque is calculated using the following equation: The term of the lease may be extended when drilling or production begins. This falls within the so-called secondary term, which applies as long as oil and gas are produced in numerical quantities.  In this case, a percentage of the mineral property belongs to two or more companies.