Benzylpiperazine Legal Highs

Results: All products were originally delivered, but the supply of products decreased from month to month. The following classes of active substances were detected: piperazines, cathinones, caffeine/ephedrine or products in which no psychoactive drugs were detected. Of the products delivered more than once, 15 (75%) contained the same compounds at each occasion. In three products, a change in piperazine was noted, in which 1-benzylpiperazine was replaced by 1-methyl-4-benzylpiperazine or vice versa. In two other products, cathinone [4-fluorophenylpiperazine (pFPP) or 3-fluromethcathinone (3FMC)] was detected in products purchased in month 1, which was not present in products purchased in month 1. Availability was restored in the following years, but not at the legal level before the ban. The supply of recreational drugs to users has changed in recent years, as the Internet is increasingly used to source recreational drugs and/or buy “legal highs” in big box stores.1,2 These changes have been linked to a change in the types of compounds used as recreational drugs, with the increasing use of new compounds such as cathinone, Piperazines and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (“Spice”).3 A recent survey of more than 2000 UK clubbers showed that the use of these compounds is common – 26% of respondents to a survey on a website had previously used 1-benzylpiperazine and 41.7% had used cathinone, Mephedrone.3 There is a misconception that these compounds are “safe” because some of them are sold legally and not under the UK Drug Abuse Act (1971). be controlled. However, there are numerous reports of toxicity similar to the conventional recreational drug in people using these legal highs.4–10 Due to the toxicity associated with some of these compounds, the UK Drug Abuse Act (1971) was amended in late 2009 to control a number of piperazine derivatives as Class C compounds and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists in as B.11 class compounds BZP is prohibited in Australia: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, germany, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malta, Poland and Sweden.

[14] [39] BZP is not subject to a UN convention, so the compounds themselves are legal in most parts of the world, although in most countries their use is limited to pharmaceutical manufacturing and their recreational use is unknown. [39] Objective: To investigate the impact of banning BZP`s legal highs on the prevalence of BZP, legal surrogate highs and other drugs. Background: Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is the psychoactive ingredient in a number of “legal highs” sold worldwide. BZP was banned in New Zealand in 2008. Keywords: BZP; Illegal markets; Legal highs; New psychoactive substances; Prohibition. The 26 legal highs selected from the five different websites of Internet service providers were delivered in the first month (January 2009). The names of the legal highs and the components identified during the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The substances detected fell roughly into the following drug classes: piperazines, cathinones, caffeine/ephedrine or no psychoactive drugs detected; The number of Legal High products in each of these classes is summarized in Figure 1. Background: Legal highs containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) were widely used in New Zealand until BZP was banned in 2008. We examined the impact of the ban on the availability and price of BZP in subsequent years. At the time of this study, not all classes of drugs identified were controlled by the UK Drug Abuse Act (1971). Subsequently, however, piperazines were checked in the UNITED Kingdom on 23 December 2009 under this legislation.11 It is likely that the active substances detected in the products purchased in this study will have changed after this change in uk control of piperazines.

Suppliers can either remove these products from sale or change the active ingredients to remain legal for sale in the UK. Further work is needed on further purchases of the products presented in this study to determine whether they are still available and/or whether the active substances have changed in order to determine the effectiveness of the changes to UK legislation. – What is BZP? – What does BZP look like? – How is BZP used? – Who abuses BZP? – What are the risks? – What is it called? – Is BZP illegal? Analytical data were compiled to (i) determine the original components of the acquired legal highs; (ii) whether there was a link between the cost of an individual product and the likely components of that product; and (iii) whether the components of individual purchases have changed over time.