Research has shown that one of the critical factors influencing memory loss is time. Information is often easily forgotten, especially if it is not actively reviewed and repeated. To summarize how memory cues work: For a polling indicator to be effective, there must be a match between the coordinate system and the desired target memory. In addition, the signal target relationship must be distinctive to achieve the best recovery. Next, we will see how the principle of coding specificity can work in practice. Becker gives examples of computer screens and conversation to illustrate how to recognize sensory registers. If you look at a computer screen and then look away but still see the image of the screen, it`s an iconic memory. When you have conversations with other people and ask them to repeat themselves just to understand what they said a moment later, it shows an echo-like memory. During a new learning experience, a number of genes are rapidly expressed in the brain. This induced gene expression is considered essential for the processing of learned information.
These genes are called immediate early genes (IEGs). DNA topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) activity is essential for the expression of IEGs in a type of learning experiment in mice called associative fear memory.  Such a learning experiment appears to quickly trigger TOP2B to induce double-strand breaks in DNA promoters of IEG genes that function in neuroplasticity. The repair of these induced breaks is associated with the demethylation of the DNA of the promoters of the IEG genes, which allows the immediate expression of these IEG genes.  This research on the effects of stress on memory may have practical implications for education, eyewitness testimony, and psychotherapy: students may perform better when tested in their regular classroom rather than in an exam room, eyewitnesses may remember details at the site of an event better than in a courtroom, And people with post-traumatic stress can improve if they are helped to contextualize their memories of a traumatic event. The longer the exposure to stress, the more impact it can have. However, exposure to short-term stress also leads to memory impairment by impairing hippocampal function. Research shows that subjects who have been in a stressful situation for a short period of time still have glucocorticoid levels in their blood that have increased dramatically when measured after exposure ends.
When subjects are asked to complete a learning task after a brief exposure, they often have difficulties. Prenatal stress also impairs the ability to learn and remember by disrupting hippocampal development and can lead to unestablished long-term potentiation in offspring of highly stressed parents. Although stress is applied before birth, offspring show high levels of glucocorticoids when exposed to stress later in life.  One of the reasons why children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds tend to have lower memory performance than their higher-income peers is the effect of accumulated stress over the lifetime.  It is also believed that the effects of low income on the developing hippocampus are mediated by chronic stress responses, which may explain why children from low- and high-income backgrounds differ in memory performance.  The medial temporal lobe, located just behind the ear, houses the brain`s memory centers: the hippocampus and the parahippocampal regions. These regions work with other parts of the cerebral cortex to form, organize, consolidate, and retrieve memories. The four main lobes of the cerebral cortex – frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital – process sensory information such as smell, taste, vision and sound.
The associative regions of the cortex integrate these sensory inputs and allow us to understand our environment and encode memories. Much of this stored memory is out of consciousness most of the time, unless we actually need to use it. The process of recovery allows us to bring the memories stored in consciousness. Retroactive interventions are one of the main causes of forgetfulness (McGeoch, 1932). In the Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases module, noba.to/uy49tm37 Elizabeth Loftus describes her fascinating work on eyewitness memory, in which she shows how the memory of an event can be altered by misinformation provided during the retention interval. For example, if you witnessed a car accident, but then heard people describe it from their own perspective, this new information can disrupt or disrupt your personal memory of the accident. In fact, you may even remember that the event unfolded exactly as others have described it! This effect of misinformation in eyewitness memory represents a type of feedback interference that can occur during the retention interval (see Loftus, 2005 for a review).