1a “Noble”, which can be used by wines with a minimum ageing period of 18 months in total, in oak wood containers with a maximum capacity of 600 litres or in bottles. 2a “Appendix”, which may be used by wines with a minimum total ageing period of 24 months, in oak wood vats with a capacity not exceeding 600 litres or in bottles. 3a `old`, which may be used by wines subject to a minimum ageing period of 36 months, where this ageing has been clearly oxidative due to exposure to light, oxygen, heat or all these factors. b) Specific information provided by v.t.c.p.r.d. In addition to the information regulated in the preceding paragraph, the V.T.C.P.R.D. may use: 1a “Parenthood” as determined by the V.T.C.P.R.D. red wines with a minimum ageing period of 24 months, of which at least six have remained in oak barrels with a capacity not exceeding 330 litres; and V.T.C.P.R.D. blanc-rose with a minimum maturation period of 18 months, of which at least six remained in oak barrels of the same maximum capacity. 2a “reserve” which may be used by V.T.C.P.R.D. red wine with a minimum ageing period of 36 months, including at least 12 months in oak barrels with a capacity not exceeding 330 litres, and for the remainder of this period in bottles; V.T.C.P.R.D.
white rosé with a minimum ageing period of 24 months, of which at least six months must remain in oak barrels of the same maximum capacity and bottles for the remainder of this period. 3a “Gran reserva”, operated by V.T.C.P.R.D. red wines with a minimum ageing period of 60 months, of which at least 18 months have remained in oak barrels with a capacity not exceeding 330 litres and in bottles for the remainder of that period; White and pink V.T.C.P.R.D. with a minimum maturation period of 48 months, of which at least six remained in oak barrels of the same maximum capacity and the rest of this time in bottle. (c) special indications for quality sparkling wines. Quality sparkling wines may bear the following indications: 1a `Premium` and `Reserva`, which may be used for quality sparkling wines as defined by Community legislation and for quality sparkling wines from a specified region (EASR). 2a “Gran reserva”, which can be used by the V.E.C.P.R.D., protected by the Cava appellation, with a minimum maturation period of 30 months from draw to disgorging. Wines intended for human consumption as a beverage are called “wines on the palate”. Wines in the mouth can be divided into different categories according to their gastronomic function: table, dessert and aperitif.
The dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy defines table wine as “the most common and lightest wine drunk during the meal, as opposed to dessert”. It is a gastronomic concept. As for Spanish gastronomic customs, it is considered that a red wine should not be missing from a well-set table, actually lighter than dessert wine, no more than about twelve degrees. For the table, however, no sweet wine or wine very generous in alcohol is suitable. A jerez, or port, are usually offered before and after lunch for their characteristics, but not so much to accompany it. Gastronomic concepts are relative. “What do you want as dessert wine?” The answer may be a sweet wine; or “I`m always with the reds,” etc. The same person may want a different dessert wine on another day or change the wine from the same meal. In American restaurants, wines are grouped together because of the viduño with which they are made. We come across the menu with the Zinfandel variety, considered typical of California, or with the Cabernet Sauvignon variety, etc.
Once you understand the wines, it is clear that in both cases we will find with a red wine. When you find a Chardonnay, you know that you will find a slightly fruity white wine, etc. Once the winery is selected, the option focuses on the winery that produces it, which is another very important element in the selection of wines. In European restaurants, it is customary to find wines by color (white, red and rosé) to proceed later to the choice of a specific bottle. If you choose a white wine, it is easy to find a “rueda” – a geographical criterion – among them. If red wine is chosen, it is easy to find Rioja or Ribera del Duero, which are geographical criteria. In France, Viduño is not mentioned. It is even forbidden to appear on the label of bottles.
The main taste components of grapes are sugars, acids and polyphenols. These three compounds give the wine three of the five basic aromas: sweet, sour and bitter. However, there are many substances in grapes that end up giving a taste, these substances are presented in minute amounts (sometimes measured in parts per million and even parts per billion or trillion). All these substances give the grape a characteristic taste, called primary taste. The primary taste characterizes the Vitis vinifera variety. Most of the aromatic components are located inside the skin of the grape, which is why pressing takes a fundamental process when it comes to adding primary aromas to the wine. In some fortified wines such as sherry or fino, there is a little “touch” of salty taste due to the salty environment that surrounds the maturation. The way wine is produced today, with technological advancements providing strong connectivity between the world`s experts, has led to a new concept called the globalization of wine.  This new concept means that apparently geographically separated vineyards are treated equally by the same winemaker.
Alcoholic fermentation is an anaerobic metabolic process (in the absence of oxygen) that allows yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to consume the sugar in the wort to release carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol (ethanol with the formula CH3-CH2-OH), which remains in solution in the final wine. Alcohol concentration is usually measured as a percentage of the total volume. The ethyl alcohol content varies depending on the grape variety and conditions, for example between 7 and 14% for table wines, 11 to 13% for sparkling wines, 16 to 18% for sherry wines and other wines and generally less than 17% for port and dessert wines. The most common method of determining the presence of alcohol in a wine is to measure the boiling point.  Other elements are artificially added to wine and form so-called viticultural additives, these additives are intended to stabilize certain compounds (proteins, tartrate crystals, etc.), to reduce the content of acids, antioxidants (ascorbic acid), antimicrobials (sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid, sorbates, benzoic acid, fumaric acid). Production is expected to increase by 3.83% over the period 2008-2012 to just over 3 billion 9-litre cans. Consumption would increase at an even higher rate of 6% to reach 2800 million cartons. Even in regions such as South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, consumption is constant.  Australian and South African wines are predominant in the British market and their consumption has increased since the late twentieth century.
 This market design takes into account many non-purely commercial considerations, resulting in very flexible legislation.